Bharat Patel: "If our living standards remain
the same, our consumption remains the same, we have to have something to
balance it. And that can only come from renewable
The Deep Roots of
the Sustainability Movement
A Green Technology Interview with Bharat
Patel is the sustainability specialist at Los Angeles City College,
overseeing the implementation of the Districtís sustainable building
policy. This policy has led to one of the largest green building project
in the US, part of a $2.1 billion bond proposition which includes 43 LEED
buildings spread over the college districtís 9 campuses (see related story).
Patel is also
senior vice president and director of sustainability at HOK Architects,
chair of the US Green Building Councilís Los Angeles chapter, a member of
the Community Advisory Board at the Union Bank of California where his
priority is funding green developments. As an advisor to the Apollo
Alliance, he focuses on making the new green economy and its attendant
jobs available to all segments of society. He has traveled the world
observing and sharing information on green building practices.
You were there at the
beginning of the LACCD project. How did such a massive green building
project ever get off the ground?
Indeed, I have been with the
program since its inception and am one of the longest serving members of
the Build LACCD team. Iíve been on the job since 2001. When I started,
there were ten LEED projects in all of America. When the [LACCD] board of
trustees passed its [sustainable building] policy, that number was
suddenly quadrupled. No one else in the world, as far as we knew, had
passed such a far-reaching policy.
Early on, we were faced with an
issue of education. If people donít even know what a green building is,
how do we get such a policy passed? So we held educational forums around
the nine campuses. We had presenters and talked about the policy that we
were about to put forward to the board of trustees. Board members attended
I have to give a lot of credit to the environmental
groups, for example, the Coalition for Clean Air, the Sierra Club, Global
Green. They engaged the students. But most of all, the credit has to go to
the board of trustees, because in the final analysis they stuck their
necks out big time. Thatís where the credit goes.
Once the policy
was passed, it was a question of implementation. Other institutions began
to copy our policy. They used the same principles, even the same wording.
The City of Los Angeles, the UC system, Pasadena, several other cities -
they all followed after 2001.
Having an actual policy in place
was an important milestone?
Yes. Once you have a policy in
place you canít value engineer it out when there are budget
considerations. Itís very, very important. The policy has to be in place.
You canít just say itís nice to have LEED, itís our goal to be LEED
certified. It doesnít work. A real motivator was the state, [Governor]
Schwarzenegger, making all the state buildings LEED silver.
did the specifics of the LACCD policy develop?
I wrote the
sustainability policy, and then we focused on energy. We said not only do
new buildings have to be LEED Silver or at least LEED certified, they also
have to exceed local energy codes, Title 24, by 20 percent. Then we
required renewable energy on every campus. That was a big deal, because in
2001 or 2002 there werenít many photovoltaic systems, and they were
expensive. It was a very progressive thing.
So now we have the LEED
buildings, we have an energy policy, weíre putting in photovoltaic systems
and some wind [turbines]. Should the board of trustees propose a bond to
the voters and it passes, weíll take it all off the grid. Thatís the
ultimate objective. But that will take a lot more money and a lot of
effort. It wonít be done in one fell swoop, but in phases.
long will take to reach your energy goals?
If the voters pass
the bond proposed by the board of trustees, weíll be totally off the grid
in about six or seven years. Some colleges, like East Los Angeles College,
that didnít have money set aside for large systems, have opted for power
purchase agreements. The federal government at the moment offers a tax
incentive for 30 percent [of the cost of a PV system]. They also offer
rapid depreciation of 20 percent. So now the cost is cut in half. Then
youíve got state incentives and everything else. These federal incentives
are tax- based, so LACCD doesnít pay any tax.
The mechanism they
are using is called a PPA, a power purchase agreement. A third party comes
in, which in this case is Chevron. They design, build, own and operate the
photovoltaic farm going into East LA College, and they sell the
electricity generated back to the college at a rate that is fixed for 20
years. Now thereís a huge reduction for the college. At East LA I think
theyíll pay 13.5 cents a kilowatt hour. And what they were paying with all
the loaded rates and everything else was something like 21 cents per
All the big players are doing this Ė Chevron,
Honeywell, Siemens. Itís not only good for the planet, now weíre moving to
a new era in which sustainability actually makes good business sense.
What are some of the challenges you face?
70 new projects going [from buildings to parking structures and others].
LEED criteria, at the moment, only address one building at a time. If you
have a PV system shared among all the buildings, and LEED only addresses
one building, you have to have photovoltaics on each building. Weíve got a
situation where a lot of these arrays are on parking structures. They are
a shared resource among several buildings, so we have to be able to manage
how you capture those points.
The other issue we face is
education. When we bid a job itís awarded to the lowest bidder. When you
get the lowest bid, you may find that the contractor is not really focused
on LEED or anything else, or perhaps has never done a LEED building. If we
could pre-approve contractors, it could make it a smoother process. Also,
we want to attract small contractors; we want to help the community. So we
have a huge educational component. I have been teaching sustainable design
at UCLA for approximately 18 years, so itís a pleasure for me to teach
contractors, staff and construction staff about the LEED process. Itís a
very important aspect of our work here.
What are the benefits of
this project to the community or to the nation?
There are two
or three aspects. First, the policy has now been duplicated many times.
Second, weíre doing innovation. For example, weíre using high volume fly
ash, which replaces a component of cement. Cement contributes 8 to 9
percent of the CO2 emissions in the world; fly ash is what comes out as a
waste product of coal-fired power stations. So youíre using the waste of
one process as a food for the other and that can be duplicated by other
people. Being the first ones to do all this on a mass scale, weíve been
giving out knowledge.
What is even more important, or at least as
important, is the local perspective. Youíve got a student coming into a
LEED building at LACCD, and he or she is just as important as sharing our
knowledge around the country and the world. We are putting large kiosks in
these buildings. They are actually developed by students, interns. They
are fascinating, beautifully done. A student or instructor can see the
components and what makes the building sustainable, and they go through
every stage. When they walk through the building, itís a teaching tool.
They go into the menís room and theyíve got a waterless urinal where weíre
saving something like 40,000 gallons of water a year. They see a recycled
ceiling, and everything else. All have little signs with information.
Every building is a living, learning thing. Thatís what itís
Youíve done a lot of traveling. How does the US compare
with other countries when it comes to sustainability?
represented California at the United Nations [United Nations
Climate Change Conference in Bali], it was very strange. I met
many of the delegates that represented the 192 countries in attendance
there. When I was introduced, I shook their hands and they said, ďOh,
youíre from California. Fantastic! Youíre our friends, right?Ē
Around the world, California is treated as a different country from the
rest of America. California regulations and [mandates that] Schwarzenegger
has passed far exceed any Kyoto Protocol. California is leading the world
in climate policy. Ours are far better than regulations currently in place
in England or anywhere else in the world. Most people [here] have a
different perspective. They think weíre so far behind and that Europe is
far ahead, but the policies we have in place are way ahead.
From your perspective as a delegate to the UN Conference and a
leader in sustainable architecture, do you see the growth in green tech as
a lasting phenomena? Or is it another dot-com spiral?
a new era where innovation is key. Innovation has always come to our
rescue. America has always excelled in it; weíre not good, weíre brilliant
at it. I deal with a lot of venture capitalists, and thereís more money
being brought into the green movement in California than into software and
hardware combined. Thereís billions of dollars being invested. Venture
capital holds itself where thereís innovation, and innovation drives
Thatís why itís not likened to the dot-com spiral of
boom and bust, because the sustainable movement has very deep roots. Itís
got deep roots both here and around the world, whereas the dot-com was a
very fragile economy and there was a great deal of hype created around it,
and thus it didnít have a very stable foundation. Sustainability has
spread its roots across the entire economy and goes to the heart of making
lifestyle changes. People are rethinking and shaping their lives in a
fundamentally different way.
California is the leader in this and
will lead the rest of the nation. There is no doubt in my mind that the
United States of America will be the world leader, not in terms of
sacrifice, but in how we will innovate our way out of the issues presented
to us as a result of climate change. We will take pride in the new jobs we
will create worldwide through innovation Ė jobs of a higher caliber that
will pay well and thus lift people upward and many out of poverty.
In the last five years the solar market has grown 40 percent every
year. The wind energy market has doubled in the last couple of years. So
youíre looking at industries that are in their infancy, but doubling and
tripling. These are the industries of the future. Itís always hype where
thereís money involved, but these are not going to go away. Thatís simply
because weíre competing with a diminishing resource. Oil has reached over
$100 a barrel; we have something explosive [renewable energy] competing
with something which is diminishing [fossil fuels]. So if you look at it
from that perspective, itís not hype.
If our living standards
remain the same, our consumption remains the same, we have to have
something to balance it. And that can only come from renewable methods.
What do you think the energy landscape will look like in
another fifty years?
You can look at it from two
perspectives: You can be isolationist, where you produce your own power,
you keep your own power and any excess you can give, or sell, to the grid.
But letís suppose you have a system where the sun never sets.
Thatís a fundamental thing; the sun is always shining somewhere in the
world. What if we put PV systems at 35 degrees north and south of the
equator, a band right around the world? From the U.S. to Canada
weíve got a grid system, weíre connected. Weíre connected to Alaska. Weíre
only 30 miles or so away from Russia over the Behring Straits, so the grid
can jump over easily to Russia. That opens the whole of Russia to Europe.
Itís not really such a big deal. Weíve put cables under the Atlantic,
which is thousands of miles. You grid from Alaska, and that releases
Russia and Europe. Italy, France and mostly all of Europe are all gridded
anyway. Then you hop from the Straits of Gibraltar to Africa. You grid
south from the US to the Panama Canal and to South America.
youíve got a grid around the world. Then thereís no such thing as peak
power. At the moment what is happening is youíve got these peaks of
electricity, and thatís what kills everything. You need huge standby
generation machines to cope with the peak. Sixty percent of all the money
spent on utilities is spent on addressing the peak. It costs hundreds of
millions for only three or four hours a day. Just imagine if you had a
global solar array system all interconnected. So when the sun is setting
in one place, itís rising in another place. Then thereís a continuous
amount of solar generating around the planet, feeding the whole world.
Itís a different perspective. Of course, there may be security
problems, but thatís nothing compared to the security problems we are
currently facing with oil. The amount of energy the sun produces in one
hour is enough to power the world for one whole year. Thatísí where Iím
coming from. Only we could do this as Americans, because we foster and
nourish the entrepreneurial spirit and are historically most famous for
our ingenuity. This, in my humble opinion, is our most valuable